Annotated Bibliography

Common diseases of the 19th Century

“Apostles of Cleanliness.” ACS Publications, pubs.acs.org/subscribe/archive/mdd/v05/i05/html/05ttl.html.

-This source explains the prevalence of disease among more populated urban areas.

Echols, Michael. “ Martyn Paine, M.D.” Antique Bloodletting and Leeching Instruments, www.medicalantiques.com/civilwar/Medical_Authors_Faculty/Paine_Martyn.htm

– This source provides a summary of Martyn Paine and his most significant accomplishments.

Institute of Medicine (US) Committee for the Study of the Future of Public Health. “A History of the Public Health System.” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1 Jan. 1988, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK218224/.

-This source explains the significance of public health and why society turned to it as a solution to the disease epidemics.

Paine. “Letters on the Cholera Asphyxia, as It Has Appeared in the City of New-York : Addressed to John C. Warren, M.D., of Boston, and Originally Published in That …” HathiTrust, Boston :Ginn,c1938., babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.32044048097547;view.

-This primary source was used to illustrate the disease of Cholera during the 19th Century. It portrays how it affected society and details the symptoms and treatments.

“New York City Cholera Outbreak of 1866.” Uvadisasters Wiki, uvadisasters.wikia.com/wiki/New_York_City_Cholera_Outbreak_of_1866.

-This source provides the picture used in the website. It portrays one of the affects of Cholera had on society- contamination of drinking water.

 

 

Medical Care in the 19th Century

  • My first source was used to research history within my topic, this contributed important dates and people who were involved in medical care in such a early time period. 19th-Century Health Care. (n.d.). Retrieved September 24, 2018, from https://www.heritage.nf.ca/articles/society/19th-century-health.php
  • This source was used to take and in depth look into the history of midwives, and how they came about.  This source provided multiple explanations and people who were involved in midwifery.  Rooks, J. P. (2014, May 22). The History of Midwifery. Retrieved September 24, 2018, from https://www.ourbodiesourselves.org/book-excerpts/health-article/history-of-midwifery/
  • In this source Martha Ballard was highlighted as an important woman within her midwife career.  This source also provided when anesthesia was discovered.  P.., & P. (2017, April 02). 19th Century Midwives. Retrieved September 24, 2018, from http://www.womenhistoryblog.com/2014/06/19th-century-midwives.html
  • Within this source was a timeline of events, which gave detailed information on the 1st person to use anesthesia correctly and publicly. History of Anesthesia.” Wood Library Museum, www.woodlibrarymuseum.org/history-of-anesthesia/.
  • This website was the ultimate source for the history behind nursing professions and how they evolved into the workers they are today.  As well as highlighted multiple people who contributed to the career history.  American Nursing: An Introduction to the Past.” Barbara Bates Center for the Study of the History of Nursing • Penn Nursing, www.nursing.upenn.edu/nhhc/american-nursing-an-introduction-to-the-past/.

 

 

Physicians first in the 19th Century

http://www-personal.umd.umich.edu/~jonsmith/19cmed.html [i]

“Student Paper On 19Th-Century Medicine.” Www-personal.umd.umich.edu. N.p., 2018. Web. 24 Sept. 2018. This source helped provide me with helpful insight about different areas in medicine and changes that medicine undertook in the 19th century.

http://www.blackpast.org/aah/smith-james-mccune-1813-1865 [ii]

 Smith, James McCune (1813-1865) | The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed This source helped provide a peek into the early, mid, and end life of Dr. James McCune Smith. This source provides the educational life of James Mccune and his journey to becoming the  first black American to earn a medical degree and practice medicine in the United States.

https://blackdoctor.org/513476/dr-james-mccune-smith-the-nations-first-black-doctor/ [iii]

Lane, D. and Lane, D. (2018). Dr. James McCune Smith: The Nation’s First Black Doctor. This source provided the reader with the distinct details of James McCunes life and his early life accomplishments. It also highlights his journey to becoming the first African American to earn a medical degree and practice medicine in the United States.

https://www.britannica.com/biography/Elizabeth-Blackwell[iv]

“Elizabeth Blackwell | Biography & Facts.” Encyclopedia Britannica. N.p., 2018. Web. 24 Sept. 2018. This source provided me with the early life of Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell. The source then provides the journey of Blackwell in college and her journey of becoming the first African American woman to receive a medical degree.

https://www.jstor.org/stable/44449845?seq=2#metadata_info_tab_contents [v]

Anon, (2018) Bulletin of the history of Women: Women And Medicine In Ante-Bellum America This source highlighted and helped me further understand the beginning/ early life of Elizabeth Bristol.

https://www.thoughtco.com/rebecca-lee-crumpler-biography-45294 [vi]

Lewis, Femi (2017) Rebecca Lee Crumpler: First African-American Women to Become a Physician This source highlighted the early life and education, accomplishments, and legacy of Rebecca Lee Crumpler. It also explains the events she underwent to becoming the first African American woman to become a physician in the United States.

https://history.army.mil/news/2016/160200a_maryEdwardsWalker.html [vii]

History, U.S. “Dr. Mary Edwards Walker | Center Of Military History.” History.army.mil. N.p., 2018. Web. 24 Sept. 2018. This source helped highlight and identify the early life of Dr. Mary Edwards Walker. This source jumps straight into detail about the life of Dr. Walker and her journey to becoming a physician and women’s rights activist; who received the medal of Honor for service during the Civil War.

https://www.biography.com/people/mary-walker-9522110 [viii]

“Mary Walker.” Biography. N.p., 2018. Web. 24 Sept. 2018. This Source helps provide the early life Of Mary Walker along with her work to receiving the Medal of Honor and her further accomplishments. She was best remembered as a Civil War surgeon, first female awarded Congressional Medal of Honor

https://www.google.com/search?q=physicians+in+the+19th+century&rlz=1C1GKLB_enUS709US709&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwievqK9ytPdAhWlV98KHYjvCIkQ_AUIDygC#imgrc=53VnNv456nCVCM: [ix] This image provided me with a visual representation of Physicians in the 19th Century and how they worked.

https://www.google.com/search?rlz=1C1GKLB_enUS709US709&tbm=isch&sa=1&ei=iNCoW5ezOaW6ggfHlaeIDg&q=dr+james+mccune+smith&oq=dr+james+mccu&gs_l=img.1.0.0j0i24l9.36074.45683..47070…0.0..0.699.1700.8j4j5-1……2….1..gws-wiz-img…..0..0i67j0i30.yFWnt9lcN_I#imgrc=sAWnos1F1pgNeM: [x] This source provided me with a visual representation of Dr. James McCune Smith.

 

 

Public Health in the 19th Century

This site is a pdf version of a book by  Howard D. Kramer, and the last few pages are talks about how the states was the a little behind in the medical findings of the 19th century. https://ir.uiowa.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=5070&context=etd

This site is just proof that there was an estimated amount of deaths that occurred during the yellow fever http://www.norfolkpubliclibrary.org/home/showdocument?id=402

More details on the first yellow fever victim in Norfolk, talks about how upperclass blamed the poor for spreading illness https://ir.uiowa.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=5070&context=etd

Talks about John Snow and the why he’s called the father of public health https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=-N0_AAAAcAAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=john+snow&ots=mWNiDrIqNO&sig=7OlMhZxEG2_dYyzCwowzZUmp7jw#v=onepage&q=john%20snow&f=false

Talks about why there were inoculation riots https://www.jstor.org/stable/4248609?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents