The Biological Make Up

 The penis is the male genital organ that produces sexual arousal. The penis contains three cylinders which include two lateral corpora cavernous and the central corpus spongiosum. The make up of all three contain blood vessels and spongy like tissue that allow the penis to fill with blood when erect. The penis does not have any bones and little muscle, it is important to note the root of the penis attachment to a number of muscles allows for the penis to move when erect.

When a man experiences an erection, the penis becomes engorged and firm. Erection can be the cause of a number of things such as: visual, physical touch, auditory, olfactory (relating to smell), and/or cognitive. Nerve fibers swell the arteries of the penis allowing blood to rush into the corpora cavernous and corpus spongiosum. Muscle compress veins and prevent blood escape, the blood filled tissue is what causes swelling.

Male Anxiety

 Size matters right? Male penis size can be hereditary. The size of a father’s penis often reflects that of his son. This very question is the reasoning for the long lasting history of men experienced anxiety about their penis size. Men and women often tie penis size to other aspects of life. For example the bigger a man’s penis it is likely he is seen more masculine, powerful, and sexually desired. 

Men are comparing their penis size to those who are in porn videos. This can be dangerous because we all know porn can give us an unrealistic and misconstrued view. Leading the “average” penis size to really be the minority of penis sizes. The average man’s penis is 3-4 inches and 6 inches erect. Less than 3% of men reach the 8 inch or greater mark. And 15% measure at 7 inches with fewer than 5000 at 12 inches. 

The Enlargement Surgery

If a man is looking to undergo penis enlargement surgery he must be circumcised prior to the procedure. It is also important to note that doctors often limit the extension form 2.95 inches to 3.94 inches. 

The most commonly used technique involves cutting the ligaments and removing fat tissue to perform either a Z-plasty or VY-plasty (both procedures lengthen the penis). Inserting a penuma device (crescent shaped silicone) under the penis skin to improve width and length is another way of seeking surgical penis enlargement.  Enlargement can also be done by injecting autologous fat tissue in between the superficial and deep fascia. Autologous fat transfer is a procedure also done in women who undergo breast reconstruction as fat is liposuction from other region in the body and injected into the breast.

 After an individual receives surgery, he is usually free to go home the day after. The follow up visit can range from two to three days after the procedure. Men are to reframe from sexual activity for approximately six weeks this includes masturbation, intercourse and oral sex

Other Enlargement Procedures

Having the penis enlarged has not been the only method men indulge in to get their desired result. Penile lengthening pills are drugs taken to enlarge the penis. The theory is the herbal blend of the drug will promote blood flow at an increased level, in results enhancing the size. Another method is penis stretch apparatus which includes a device made up of a plastic ring, two dynamic rods for traction and a silicon band to hold the penis in place. and vacuum pumps used for penile extension. Using vacuum penile pumps is a non surgical way that involves suction the penis to promote an erection by drawing blood into the penis. Liquid injectable silicone (LIS) is a procedure done by injecting the penis with silicone. LIC remains controversy due to its dangers that include possible priapism, impotence, pigment change and ecchymosis.

Many of the procedures mentioned above lack evidence proving that the penis size increased and may result in life long effects.

The Cost

Receiving penis enlargement surgery is cleared by the FDA under the cosmetic surgery criteria. On average the cost will amount to $15,000 in total with deposits required. Considering the cost of many surgery procedures this may not seem like much money. But the cost of penis enlargement surgery is not covered through insurance most insurance so expect all or some cost to come out of pocket.

Results/Side Effects/Risk

Surgery is the only proven treatment shown for penis enlargement. Success rates of those who went under surgical procedures versus non surgical are exceptionally high. With 92% patients report sexual activity with implant satisfactory, 96% of patient partners report sexual activity with implant satisfactory 95% claim better orgasm, and 98% report excellent erections.


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Carroll, Janell L. Sexuality Now:Embracing Diversity. Boston MA, Cenage Learning, 2016

Legg, Timothy. (February 28,2019). Penis Enlargement Surgery: How Much Does It Cost and Is It Worth the Risk. Retrieved from (

Nugteren, Helena M, G. T Balkema, A. L Pascal, W. C. M. Weijmar Schultz, J. M Nijman, and M. F Van Driel. “Penile Enlargement: From Medication to Surgery.” Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy 36.2 (2010): 118-23. Web.

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Terri Fields is a senior at Old Dominion University majoring in Human Services with a minor in Health and Wellness. She is interested in health and fitness and how it impacts an individual’s life. Currently she works as a direct support professional at an non profit organization. In the future she plans on continuing her research in grief counseling.