Cybersecurity can be defined in many ways, as stated by Craigen et al. (2014), One way to define Cybersecurity includes: “safeguarding computer networks and the information they contain from penetration and malicious damage or disruption.” (Lewis, 2006). The four major that relates to cybersecurity includes: Sociology, Criminology, Victimology, and information technology.

As defined by Frenchman, “sociology is the study of social change, social life, and social causes and effects of man’s behavior.” It looks into the structure of organizations, groups and, society and how people relate with them. Concerning Cybersecurity, sociologists research how technology affects cyber offending, society’s impact on the crimes, and how people interact online. In this regard, technological advancement and Cybersecurity is of high importance. Considering how it has changed the work scope, the flexibility and massive expansion lead most people to move a good amount of their transactions online today than it has ever been. The increase in reliance on the internet has also advanced the types of cybercrimes, victims, and offenders, hence Cybersecurity. 

Criminology, simply put, is the study of crime and its causes. When technology is used to commit the crime or the technology itself is the focus of crime, it becomes cybercrime. It may start with the stealing of data and information from the internet. Society caused a change to how these crimes occur when the policy of “see something say something” became a thing. Cybersecurity measures and technologies help criminologists to employ programs to protect, prevent and detect cybercrime.

Victimology dives into the study of victims, their consequences, and societal responses. The study of victims helps investigators determine the reality of an attack and develop proper means to counter any attack.  It enables security professionals to effectively detect what they are dealing with (Traditional phishing or a targeted offensive against the business) by identifying the motives and reason for an attack and conducting technical analysis to know what countermeasure to use. 

The information technology association of America (ITAA) defines information technology as “the study, design, development, implementation, support, or management of computer-based information systems particularly software applications and computer hardware.” With the increase in attacks on information systems, the main goal is to ensure systems and their contents are secured and protected. Information technology will help safeguard an organization’s technology assets, data, save the ability to function, and enable applications’ safe operation.


Department of Homeland Security. (n.d.). Combat cybercrime. Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/combat-cyber-crime 

Mitchell, K. J., Wolak, J., Finkelhor, D., & Jones, L. (2011). Investigators using the Internet to apprehend sex offenders: Findings from the Second National Juvenile Online Victimization Study. Police Practice and Research,3(2), 1-15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15614263.2011.62746 

McCusker, R. (2006, December). Transnational organized cybercrime: Distinguishing threat from reality. Crime, Law and Social Change,46(4-5), 257-273. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10611-007-9059-3 

Jaishankar, K. (2010). The future of cyber criminology: Challenges and opportunities. International Journal of Cyber Criminology4(1), 26-31. Retrieved from http://www.cybercrimejournal.com/ 






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