Article Review #2

Name: Pearl Newton

Date:   March 20th, 2024

Cybersecurity Education Program for Internet Users with Limited English

I will be detailing my understanding of the article The Need for a Cybersecurity Education Program for Internet Users with Limited English Proficiency: Results from a Pilot Study by Authors Fawn T. Ngo, Rustu Deryol, Brian Turnbull, and Jack Drobisz. The research conducted involved participants who had limited English understanding and were primarily Spanish or Vietnamese speakers who were given cybersecurity information in their language, and the results of online practices were studied after that information was clearly understood by the participants.

Cyber Crime

In this digital age, cybercrimes are happening at astonishing rates. Cybercrimes are ever evolving, and complex. Legitimate websites or email can be a targeted phishing attempt that can be disastrous with just one click on a link from an unsuspecting victim. Best practices and general tips on how to safely navigate the internet are not always available outside of the English language. Cybersecurity awareness and education are powerful tools to help any individual navigate online activity with their guard up, according to experts. This can present online users with limited English proficiency (LEP) a unique vulnerability when navigating the internet. “The lack of information and resources on cybersecurity and Internet safety in languages other than English is concerning because not only does the LEP population compose 8.5% of the U.S. population, but due to their language barriers, they face a unique set of vulnerabilities that potentially impact their safety and ability to prevent and respond to cybercrime.” Of course there are translation sites, but without the knowledge of knowing what exactly one needs translated in regards to cybersecurity, the results are not effective. “Relatedly, concerning reporting cybercrime, the CSN website directs its users to the IC3 website to file a cybercrime victimization report, where the complaint form is only available in English. Enabling and encouraging all citizens, including LEP individuals, to report their victimization is a critical aspect of maintaining a secure and inclusive digital environment.” (T Ngo et al., 2024) The study reviewed in this scholarly article takes the stance of giving the LEP users clear direction and information about safe cybersecurity best practices in their primary language, and the resulting effects afterward.


This research in this article was conducted with participants who were recruited in the United States at the location of Tampa Florida. Eligible participants had to be 18 or older, LEP, and speak either Spanish or Vietnamese and not very well educated in cybersecurity best practices. “Eighteen Spanish-speaking individuals were referred to the study by the Hispanic Outreach Center and the University Area Community Development Corporation (UACDC) and six Vietnamese-speaking respondents were referred by the Vietnamese Community of Tampa Bay. All participants met the eligibility criteria and were included in three in-person focus groups”. (T Ngo et al., 2024) It is noted that the study contained both male and female subjects, age ranges from 18 being the youngest to 71 being the oldest. Some participants were married, widowed or living with a partner. The backgrounds were diverse as far as education, 7 not graduating high school, 4 with a high school diploma, and a few with a bachelor’s degree or technical certification. All focus group participants met in meetings that were led by an educator who went over cybersecurity topics aimed at targeting best practices and awareness in their native languages in a specific format followed by each study group. Study tools utilized were pre and post class surveys and evaluations.


The results after all meetings were conducted, involved asking the study groups if they have experienced specific cybercrimes. “Study participants were asked whether they encountered nine types of cybercrime within the past 12 months: phishing email, computer virus, online harassment, online account hacking, social media account hacking, email account hacking, financial account hacking, shopping account hacking, and online frauds/ scams”. (T Ngo et al., 2024) The Spanish speaking study group had experienced every specific example of cybercrime, but primarily phishing and or computer viruses. The Vietnamese group did not experience all examples of cybercrime, and primarily had online accounts or financial accounts breached but not necessarily affected and were notified of privacy being breached.


This study was done to get a complex and new view of cybersecurity practices not previously studied for LEP online users in the United States, and how education can affect their online behavior once given in their primary language. It is a fact that there are many factors that increase vulnerability online such as age, culture and even global location. This particular demographic of limited English proficiency (LEP) was not previously researched formally according to this article. LEP is a unique demographic in the United States for many people from countless countries and is an important factor when providing online education. Important feedback was noted from all participants such as what social media platforms would be the most helpful to target this demographic with information. There are five resulting takeaway key points emphasized with the results from this study. The first recommendation is that an online resource center needs to be created to address the LEP demographic. The second recommendation is that content needs to be created for the resource center that is culturally, linguistically and technically targeted to benefit each desired demographic. The third recommendation is to create a Cybercrime Reporting Structure that is easy to understand and use. The fourth recommendation is to promote this online resource center with social media targeted in the language of the desired LEP audience. The fifth and final recommendation is to evaluate the impact of the online resource center for overall effectiveness.


Ngo, F. T. , Deryol, R. , Turnbull, B. & Drobisz, J. (2024). The need for a cybersecurity education program for internet users with limited English proficiency: Results from a pilot study . International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime, 7(1), – . DOI:
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